# RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS

## SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE RELIABILITY (2009 - 2022)

(LOGIC, NVM, PACKAGING AND 2D MATERIAL RELIABILITY STUDIES)

N.L. Prabhu and

**N. Raghavan**, "Learning “On-The-Edge” – Performance Analysis using Low Powered in-memory RRAM Gradient Descent Optimization Circuit",*I**EEE Access*, To Be Submitted, (2022).A. Ranjan, S.O’Shea, Y.S. Ang, A. Padovani, C. Zhang, L. Cao, M.S. Munde, M. Bosman,

**N. Raghavan**, X.X. Zhang and K.L. Pey, “Reliability of Single Crystalline Hexagonal Boron Nitride Gate Dielectrics”,*ACS Applied Electronic Materials*, To Be Submitted, (2022).J.J. Joseph, L. Selvaraj, C. Wang and

**N. Raghavan**, “Successive Multi-Step Compliance Sweep Methodology for Understanding Evolution of Degradation Mechanisms in p-GaN HEMTs”,*IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices*, To Be Submitted, (2022).R. Dutta, S.B. Hamid, J.H. Lim, J. Tan, B. Sikder,

**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey and M.B. Zunaid, “Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Intra-Cell Magnetic Coupling Induced Variability of Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic RAMs”,*IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices*, To Be Submitted, (2022).N.L. Prabhu and

**N. Raghavan**, “RRAM-based In-Memory Computing NAND / NOR Circuit Performance Analysis in a CNN Training Framework on the Edge for Low Power IoT Applications”,*IEEE Access*, Under Revision, (2022).J. Tan, J.H. Lim, B. Sikder, M.B. Zunaid, J.H. Kwon, K. Yamane, V.B. Naik,

**N. Raghavan**and K.L. Pey, “Impact of Voltage Polarity on Time Dependent Dielectric Breakdown of 1 nm MgO based STT-MRAM with Self-Heating Correction”,*IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices*, Under Revision, (2022).A. Deogaonkar, M. Seal, A Senapati, S. Ginnaram, A. Ranjan, S. Maikap and

**N. Raghavan**, “Robust Resistive Switching Characteristics of AlO_{x}CBRAM using Simple and Cost-Effective Thermal Evaporation Process”,*Microelectronics Reliability*, Accepted, In Press, (2022).M. Seal, A. Deogaonkar, A Senapati, S. Maikap and

**N. Raghavan**, “Ruthenium based RRAM for Low Variability Switching and Scaling for Contemporary Computing Systems”,*Microelectronics Reliability*, Accepted, In Press, (2022).A. Maruvada, K. Shubhakar,

**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, S.J. O’Shea, "Dielectric breakdown of 2D muscovite mica", Scientific Reports, 12(1), pp.1-11, (2022).A. Ranjan, F.M. Puglisi, J. Molina, P. Pavan, S. O’Shea,

**N. Raghavan**and K.L. Pey, “Spatially Controlled Generation and Probing of Random Telegraph Noise in Metal Nanocrystal Embedded HfO_{2}using Defect Nano-spectroscopy”,*ACS Applied Electronic Materials*, DOI: 10.1021/acsaelm.2c00559, (2022).A.R. Junejo, H. Ryu, W. Noh,

**N. Raghavan**, S. Kim and J. Doh, “Multi-Physics Simulation-Based Prognosis of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles-Embedded Solar Cell”,*29*^{th }*International IEEE Symposium**Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA)*, pp. 1-4, (2022).C. Selvanayagam, P.L.T. Duong, B. Wilkerson and

**N. Raghavan**, “Global Optimization of Surface Warpage for Inverse Design of Ultra-Thin Electronic Packages using Tensor Train Decomposition”,*IEEE Access*, Vol. 10, pp. 48589-48602, (2022).N.L. Prabhu and

**N. Raghavan**, “Computational Failure Analysis of In-Memory RRAM Architecture for Pattern Classification CNN Circuits”,*IEEE Access*, Vol. 9, pp.168093-168106, (2021).C. Selvanayagam, P.L.T. Duong, B. Wilkerson and

**N. Raghavan**, “Inverse Design for Low Warpage Ultra-Thin Packages Using Constrained Particle Swarm Optimization”,*IEEE Access*, Vol. 9, pp. 64043-64053, (2021).J. Tan, J.H. Lim, J.H. Kwon, V.B. Naik,

**N. Raghavan**and K.L. Pey, “Role of temperature, MTJ size and pulse-width on STT-MRAM bit-error rate and backhopping”,*Solid-State Electronics*, Vol. 183, p.108032, (2021).F.L. Aguirre, A. Ranjan,

**N. Raghavan**, A. Padovani, S.M. Pazos, N. Vega, N. Müller, M. Debray, J. Molina-Reyes, K.L. Pey and F. Palumbo, “Decoupling the sequence of dielectric breakdown in single device bilayer stacks by radiation-controlled, spatially localized creation of oxide defects”,*Applied Physics Express*, Vol. 14(12), p.121001, (2021).J. Dan., L. Weihua and

**N. Raghavan**, “Semiconductor Manufacturing Final Test Yield Optimization and Wafer Acceptance Test Parameter Inverse Design Using Multi-Objective Optimization Algorithms”,*IEEE Access*, Vol. 9, pp.137655-137666, (2021).M. Lanza, R. Waser, D. Ielmini, J.J. Yang, L. Goux, J. Suñe, A.J. Kenyon, A. Mehonic, S. Spiga, …,

**N. Raghavan**and S. Wiefels, “Standards for the characterization of endurance in resistive switching devices”,*ACS Nano*, Vol. 15(11), pp.17214-17231, (2021).R. Sahay, A.S. Budiman, C. Harito, F.E. Gunawan, E. Navarro, S. Escoubas, T.W. Cornelius, I. Aziz, P.S. Lee, O. Thomas and

**N. Raghavan**, “Berkovich nanoindentation study of 16 nm Cu/Nb ARB nanolaminate: Effect of anisotropy on the surface pileup”,*MRS Advances*, Vol. 6(19), pp.495-499, (2021).C. Selvanayagam, P.L.T. Duong, B. Wilkerson and

**N. Raghavan**, “Comparison of Global Optimization Algorithms for Inverse Design of Substrate Metal Density for Low Warpage Design in Ultra-Thin Packages”,*IEEE 71st Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)*(pp. 2320-2327). IEEE, (2021).A. Ranjan,

**N. Raghavan**, M. Holwill, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, K.S. Novoselov, K.L. Pey and S.J. O’Shea, “Dielectric Breakdown in Single-Crystal Hexagonal Boron Nitride”,*ACS Applied Electronic Materials*, Vol. 3(8), pp.3547-3554, (2021).J. Dan, L. Weihua and

**N. Raghavan**, “A Gaussian Mixture Model Clustering Ensemble Regressor for Semiconductor Manufacturing Final Test Yield Prediction”,*IEEE Access*, Vol. 9, 22253-22263, (2021).A.S. Budiman, R. Sahay, H.P.A. Ali, S.K. Tippabhotla, I. Radchenko and

**N. Raghavan**, “Interface-mediated plasticity and fracture in nanoscale Cu/Nb multilayers as revealed by in situ clamped microbeam bending”,*Materials Science and Engineering: A*, Vol. 803, p.140705, (2021).A.S. Budiman, R. Sahay, K. Agarwal, G. Illya, R.G. Widjaja, A. Baji and

**N. Raghavan**, “Impact-Resistant and Tough 3D Helicoidally Architected Polymer Composites Enabling Next-Generation Lightweight Silicon Photovoltaics Module Design and Technology”,*Polymers*, Vol. 13(19), p.3315, (2021).B. Sikder, J.H. Lim, M.A. Kumar, A. Padovani, M. Haverty, U. Kamal,

**N. Raghavan**, L. Larcher, K.L. Pey, and M.Z. Baten, “Analysis and Simulation of Interface Quality and Defect Induced Variability in MgO Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic RAMs”,*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 42, No. 1 (2020): 34-37.A. Ranjan, S.J. O’Shea, M. Bosman,

**N. Raghavan**and K.L. Pey, “Localized Probing of Dielectric Breakdown in Multilayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride”,*ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces*, Vol. 12, No. 49 (2020): 55000-55010.J. Dan, L. Weihua and

**N. Raghavan**, “A Novel Framework for Semiconductor Manufacturing Final Test Yield Classification using Machine Learning Techniques”,*IEEE Access*, Vol. 8, 197885-197895, (2020).X. Zhong, C. Kui, G. Song and

**N. Raghavan**, “Deep Learning Based Detection for Mitigating Sneak Path Interference in Resistive Memory Arrays”,*IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics-Asia (ICCE-Asia)*, pp. 1-4. IEEE, 2020.C. Selvanayagam, P.L.T. Duong and

**N. Raghavan**, “Learning Localized Spatial Material Properties of Substrates in Ultra-Thin Packages using Markov Chain Monte Carlo and Finite Element Analysis”,*IEEE Access*, Vol. 8, 50163-50170, (2020).C. Selvanayagam, P.L.T. Duong and

**N. Raghavan**, “AI-Assisted Package Design for Improved Warpage Control of Ultra-Thin Packages”, In*2020 21*^{st}*International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems (EuroSimE)*(pp. 1-7), Invited, IEEE.C. Selvanayagam, P.L.T. Duong and

**N. Raghavan**, “Inverse Design of Substrate from Warpage Surrogate Model using Global Optimization Algorithms in Ultra-Thin Packages”,*IEEE 70*^{th}*Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)*, Florida, USA, pp. 2309-2316, (2020).C. Selvanayagam, P.L.T. Duong and

**N. Raghavan**, “Learning the Stress-Strain Relationships of Ultra-Thin Package Materials using a Bayesian Approach”,*IEEE 70*^{th}*Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)*, Florida, USA, pp. 1638-1645, (2020).N.L. Prabhu, .D.L.J. Jun, P.A. Dananjaya, W.S. Lew, E.H. Toh and

**N. Raghavan**, “Exploring the Impact of Variability in Resistance Distributions of RRAM on the Prediction Accuracy of Deep Learning Neural Networks”,*MDPI Electronics*, Vol. 9(3), 414, (2020). (*Editor’s Highlight Article*)J.H. Lim,

**N. Raghavan**, J.H. Kwon, T.Y. Lee, R. Chao, N.L. Chung, K. Yamane, N. Thiyagarajah, V.B. Naik and K.L. Pey, “Origins and Signatures of Tail Bit Failures in Ultra-Thin MgO-based STT-MRAM”,*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Dallas, Texas, USA, pp. 1-5, (2020).A. Ranjan, S.J. O’Shea, M. Bosman, J. Molina,

**N. Raghavan**and K.L. Pey, “Correlation of Dielectric Breakdown and Nanoscale Adhesion in Silicon Dioxide Thin Films”,*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Dallas, Texas, USA, pp. 1-7, (2020).L. Luo, K. Shubhakar, S. Mei,

**N. Raghavan**, F. Zhang, D. Shum and K.L. Pey, “Reliability and Breakdown Study of Erase Gate Oxide in Split-Gate Non-Volatile Memory Device”,*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Dallas, Texas, USA, pp. 1-6, (2020).N.L. Prabhu and

**N. Raghavan**, “Generalized Convolution Simulation Stack for RRAM Device based Deep Learning Neural Network”,*27*^{th }*International IEEE Symposium**Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA)*, pp. 1-6, (2020).N.L. Prabhu and

**N. Raghavan**, “Exploring RRAM Variability as Synapses on Inception Simulation Framework to Characterize the Prediction Accuracy and Power Estimation per Bit for Convolution Neural Network”,*27*^{th }*International IEEE Symposium**Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA)*, pp. 1-5, (2020).P.L.T. Duong, Q. Yang, H. Park and

**N. Raghavan**, “Reliability analysis and design of a single diode solar cell model using polynomial chaos and active subspace”,*Microelectronics Reliability*,*100*, 113477, (2019).S. Mei, M. Bosman, K. Shubhakar,

**N. Raghavan**, L. Ming, and K. L. Pey. "3D characterization of hard breakdown in RRAM device."*Microelectronic Engineering*216 (2019): 111042.M.H. Zhuge, Z. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zheng, Q. Song, C. Pang, X. Liu,

**N. Raghavan**and Q. Yang, "Fiber-Integrated Reversibly Wavelength-Tunable Nanowire Laser Based on Nanocavity Mode Coupling."*ACS Nano*13, no. 9 (2019): 9965-9972.A. Ranjan,

**N. Raghavan**, F.M. Puglisi, S. Mei, A. Padovani, L. Larcher, K. Shubhakar and K.L. Pey, "Boron Vacancies Causing Breakdown in 2D Layered Hexagonal Boron Nitride Dielectrics."*IEEE Electron Device Letters*40, no. 8 (2019): 1321-1324.K.L. Pey, A. Ranjan,

**N. Raghavan**and S.J. O’Shea, “New Physics of Breakdown in 2D Hexagonal Boron Nitride Dielectrics and Its Potential Applications”,*8*^{th}*IEEE International Symposium on Next Generation**Electronics (ISNE)*(pp. 1-4), (2019).N.L. Prabhu, D.L.J. Jun, P.A. Dananjaya, E.H. Toh, W.S. Lew and

**N. Raghavan**, “Exploring the Power–Prediction Accuracy Trade-Off in a Deep Learning Neural Network using Wide Compliance RRAM Device”,*8*^{th}*International Symposium on Next Generation Electronics (ISNE)*(pp. 1-3). IEEE, (2019).C. Selvanayagam, P.L.T. Duong, R. Mandal and

**N. Raghavan**. "Machine Learning Approach to Improve Accuracy of Warpage Simulations." In*2019 IEEE 69th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)*, pp. 834-841. IEEE, 2019.C. Selvanayagam, R. Mandal, P.L.T. Duong and

**N. Raghavan**, "Neural Network Assisted Speed Up of High Fidelity Warpage Simulations towards Design for Reliability in Ultra-Thin Packages",*IEEE CPMT Symposium Japan*(*ICSJ*), pp. 1-5, (2019).F.L. Aguirre, A. Padovani, A. Ranjan,

**N. Raghavan**, N. Vega, N. Müller, S.M. Pazos, M. Debray, J. Molina, K.L. Pey and F. Palumbo, “Spatio-temporal Defect Generation Process in Irradiated HfO_{2}MOS Stacks: Correlated versus Uncorrelated Mechanisms”,*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Monterey, California, pp. 1-8, (2019). (Best Paper Award)J.H. Lim,

**N. Raghavan**, V.B. Naik, J.H. Kwon , K. Yamane, H. Yang, K.H. Lee and K.L. Pey, "Correct Extrapolation Model for TDDB of MgO Magnetic Tunnel Junctions",*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Monterey, California, pp. 1-7, (2019).K.L. Pey, A. Ranjan,

**N. Raghavan**, K. Shubhakar and S.J. O’Shea, “Dielectric Breakdown in 2D Layered Hexagonal Boron Nitride – The Knowns and The Unknowns”,*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Monterey, California, pp. 1-12, (2019). (Invited)K.L. Pey, J.H. Lim,

**N. Raghavan**, S. Mei, J.H. Kwon, V.B. Naik and K.H. Lee, "New Insights into Dielectric Breakdown of MgO in STT-MRAM Devices",*IEEE Electron Devices and Technology Meeting (EDTM)*, pp.1-3, (2019). (Invited)M. Lanza, H.S.P. Wong, E. Pop, D. Ielmini, D. Strukov, B.C. Regan, L. Larcher, M.A. Villena, J. Yang, L. Goux, A. Belmonte, Y. Yang, F.M. Puglisi, J.F. Kang, B.M. Köpe, E. Yalon, A.J. Kenyon, M. Buckwell, A. Mehonic, A. Shluger, H. Li, T.H. Hou, B. Hudec, D. Akinwande, R. Ge, S. Ambrogio, J.B. Roldan, E. Miranda, J. Suñe, K.L. Pey, X. Wu,

**N. Raghavan**, E.Y. Wu, W.D. Lu, G. Navarro, W. Zhang, H. Wu, R. Li, A. Holleitner, U. Wurstbauer, M.C. Lemme, M. Liu, S. Long, Q. Liu, H. Lv, A. Padovani, P. Pavan, I. Valov, J. Xu, T.T. Han, K. Zhu, S. Chen, F. Hui and Y. Shi, “Recommended Methods to Study Resistive Switching Devices”,*Advanced Electronic Materials*, 1800143, (2018).J.H. Lim,

**N. Raghavan**, A. Padovani, J.H. Kwon, K. Yamane, H. Yang, V.B. Naik, L. Larcher, K.H. Lee and K.L. Pey, "Investigating the Statistical-Physical Nature of MgO Dielectric Breakdown in STT-MRAM at Different Operating Conditions",*IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM)*, 25.3.1-25.3.4, (2018).P.L.T. Duong, X. Xu, Q. Yang and

**N. Raghavan**, “Gaussian process regression approach for robust design and yield enhancement of self-assembled nanostructures”,*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 88, pp.85-90, (2018).X. Wu, K. Yu, D. Cha, M. Bosman,

**N. Raghavan**, X. Zhang, K. Li, Q. Liu, L. Sun and K.L. Pey, “Atomic Scale Modulation of Self‐Rectifying Resistive Switching by Interfacial Defects”,*Advanced Science*, p.1800096, (2018).Y. Zhao, C. Pang, Z. Wen, Y. Liu, X. Qiao, Z. Yang,

**N. Raghavan**, Y. Zhao and Q. Yang, “A microfiber temperature sensor based on fluorescence lifetime”,*Optics Communications*, Vol. 426, pp.231-236, (2018).M. Tang, P. Xu, Z. Wen, X. Chen, C. Pang, X. Xu, C. Meng, X. Liu, H. Tian,

**N. Raghavan**and Q. Yang, “Fast response CdS-CdS_{x}Te_{1−x}-CdTe core-shell nano-belt photodetector”,*Science Bulletin*, Vol.*63*(17), pp.1118-1124, (2018).X. Xu, P.L.T. Duong,

**N. Raghavan**and Q. Yang, “A statistical model for synthesis of bandgap graded nanostructure”,*Journal of Physics: Conference Series*, Vol. 1077, No. 1, p. 012005, IOP Publishing, (2018).X. Feng,

**N. Raghavan**, S. Mei, S. Dong, K.L. Pey and H. Wong, “Statistical nature of hard breakdown recovery in high-κ dielectric stacks studied using ramped voltage stress”,*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 88, pp.164-168, (2018).C. Selvanayagam, R. Mandal and

**N. Raghavan**, "Comparison of experimental, analytical and simulation methods to estimate substrate material properties for warpage reliability analysis."*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 89, pp. 817-823, (2018).A. Ranjan, F.M. Puglisi,

**N. Raghavan**, S.J. O’Shea, K. Shubhakar, P. Pavan, A. Padovani, L. Larcher and K.L. Pey, “Random telegraph noise in 2D hexagonal boron nitride dielectric films”,*Applied Physics Letters*, Vol. 112, 133505, (2018).A. Ranjan,

**N. Raghavan**, S.J. O’Shea, S. Mei, M. Bosman, K. Shubhakar and K.L. Pey, “Conductive Atomic Force Microscope Study of Bipolar and Threshold Resistive Switching in 2D Hexagonal Boron Nitride Films”,*Scientific Reports*, Vol. 8, Art. 2854, (2018).A. Ranjan,

**N. Raghavan**, S.J. O’Shea, S. Mei, M. Bosman, K. Shubhakar and K.L. Pey, “Mechanism of soft and hard breakdown in hexagonal boron nitride 2D dielectrics”,*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Burlingame, California, 4A.1.1 - 4A.1.6, (2018).J.H. Lim,

**N. Raghavan**, S. Mei, V. Naik, J.H. Kwon, K.H. Lee and K.L. Pey, “Area and pulse width dependence of bipolar TDDB in MgO STTRAM”,*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Burlingame, California, 6D.6.1 – 6D.6.6, (2018).**N. Raghavan**, “Evolution of the Physics and Stochastics of Failure in Ultra-Thin Dielectrics – From SiO_{2}to Advanced High-κ Gate Stacks”,*IEEE International Nanoelectronics Conference (INEC)*, Invited, pp.1-2, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, (2018).S. Mei,

**N. Raghavan**, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Stochastic modeling of FinFET degradation based on a resistor network embedded Metropolis Monte Carlo method”*IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices*, Vol. 65, No. 2, pp. 440-447, (2018).L. Laiqiang, K. Shubhakar, S. Mei,

**N. Raghavan**, B. Liu, J.Y. Huang, Y. Liu, H. Zheng, F. Zhang, D. Shum and K.L. Pey, “Impact of carbon doping on polysilicon grain size distribution and yield enhancement for 40 nm embedded non-volatile memory technology”,*IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability*, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 64-69, (2018).Y. Shi, C. Pan, V. Chen,

**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, F.M. Puglisi, E. Pop, H.S.P. Wong and M. Lanza, “Coexistence of volatile and non-volatile resistive switching in 2D h-BN based electronic synapses”,*IEEE International Electron Device Meeting (IEDM),*San Francisco, USA, pp. 5.4.1-5.4.4, (2017).C.I. Ossai and

**N. Raghavan**, “Nanostructure and nanomaterial characterization, growth mechanisms and applications”,*Nanotechnology Reviews*, 20170156, doi:10.1515/ntrev-2017-0156, (2017).R. Thamankar, F.M. Puglisi, A. Ranjan,

**N. Raghavan**, K. Shubhakar, J. Molina, L. Larcher, A. Padovani, P. Pavan, S.J. O’Shea and K.L. Pey, “Localized characterization of charge transport and random telegraph noise at the nanoscale in HfO_{2}films combining scanning tunneling microscopy and multi-scale simulations”,*Journal of Applied Physics*, 122(2), 024301, (2017).**N. Raghavan**, “Failure of Weibull distribution to represent switching statistics in OxRAM”,*Microelectronic Engineering*, Vol. 178, pp. 230-234, (2017).J.H. Lim,

**N. Raghavan**, S. Mei, K.H. Lee, S.M. Noh, J.H. Kwon, E. Quek and K.L. Pey, “Asymmetric dielectric breakdown behavior in MgO based magnetic tunnel junctions”,*Microelectronic Engineering*, Vol. 178, pp. 308-312, (2017).X. Feng,

**N. Raghavan**, S. Mei, L. Du, K.L. Pey and H. Wong, “Role of metal nanocrystals on the breakdown statistics of flash memory high-κ stacks”,*Microelectronic Engineering*, Vol. 178, pp. 293-297, (2017).P. Xu, S. Liu, M. Tang, X. Xu, X. Lin, Z. Wu, M. ZhuGe, Z. Ren, Z. Wang, X. Liu, Z. Yang,

**N. Raghavan**and Q. Yang, “Highly polarized single mode nanobelt laser”,*Applied Physics Letters*, Vol. 110, Issue 20, 201112, (2017).**N. Raghavan**, “Statistics of disturb events in OxRAM devices – A phenomenological model”,*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, PM.3.1 – PM.3.7, Monterey, California, (2017).S. Mei,

**N. Raghavan**, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Statistical basis and physical evidence for clustering model in FinFET degradation”,*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, 3C.1.1 – 3C.1.6, Monterey, California, (2017).A. Ranjan,

**N. Raghavan**, B. Liu, S.J. O’Shea, K. Shubhakar, C.S. Lai and K.L. Pey, “Nanoscale investigations of soft breakdown events in few layered fluorinated graphene”,*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, 3C.5.1 – 3C.5.6, Monterey, California, (2017).**N. Raghavan**and K.L. Pey, “Percolation framework and Monte Carlo techniques for improved probabilistic design for variability in products and systems”,*6*^{th}*International Conference on Research into Design*(*ICoRD*), Guwahati, India, pp.1-13, (2017).K.L. Pey, A. Ranjan, S. Mei,

**N. Raghavan**, K. Shubhakar, M. Bosman and S.J. O’Shea, “Recent key developments in nanoscale reliability and failure analysis techniques for advanced nanoelectronic devices”,*ULSIC vs. TFT*:*6*^{th}*International Conference on Semiconductor Technology for Ultra Large Scale Integrated Circuits and Thin Film Transistors*, Invited, pp.1, Vienna, Austria, (2017).C.I. Ossai and

**N. Raghavan**, “Uncertainty quantification in nanowire growth modeling - A precursor to quality semiconductor nanomanufacturing”,*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 76, pp. 106-111, (2017).S. Mei,

**N. Raghavan**, M. Bosman, D. Linten, G. Groeseneken, N. Horiguchi and K.L. Pey, “New Understanding of Dielectric Breakdown in Advanced FinFET Devices – Physical, Electrical, Statistical and Multiphysics Study”,*IEEE International Electron Device Meeting (IEDM),*San Francisco, USA, pp. 1-4, (2016).**N. Raghavan**, “Application of the defect clustering model for forming, SET and RESET statistics in RRAM devices”,*27*^{th}*European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF), Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 64, pp. 54-58, (2016).A. Ranjan,

**N. Raghavan**, J. Molina, S.J. O’Shea, K. Shubhakar and K.L. Pey, “Analysis of quantum conductance, read disturb and switching statistics in HfO_{2}RRAM using conductive AFM”,*27*^{th}*European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF), Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 64, pp. 172-178, (2016).K. Shubhakar, S. Mei, M. Bosman,

**N. Raghavan**, A. Ranjan, S.J. O’Shea and K.L. Pey, “Conductive filament formation at grain boundary locations in polycrystalline HfO_{2}-based MIM stacks – Computational and physical insight”,*27*^{th}*European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF), Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 64, pp.204-209, (2016).K.L. Pey, A. Ranjan, R. Thamankar, K. Shubhakar,

**N. Raghavan**and S.J. O’Shea, “Observation of resistive switching by physical analysis techniques”,*5*^{th}*International Symposium on Next-Generation Electronics (ISNE)*, Invited, pp. 1-2, (2016).K.L. Pey, R. Thamankar, S. Mei, M. Bosman,

**N. Raghavan**and K. Shubhakar, “Understanding the switching mechanism in RRAM using in-situ TEM”,*IEEE Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop (SNW)*, Invited, pp. 1-2, (2016).K.L. Pey, A. Ranjan, R. Thamankar, K. Shubhakar,

**N. Raghavan**and S.J. O’Shea, “Random telegraph noise study in HfO_{2}dielectric stacks using STM/CAFM: Analysis of local defects, degradation and breakdown”,*IEEE International Nanoelectronics Conference (INEC)*, Invited, pp. 1-2, (2016).A. Ranjan,

**N. Raghavan**, K. Shubhakar, R. Thamankar, J. Molina, S.J. O’Shea, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “CAFM based spectroscopy of stress-induced defects in HfO_{2}with experimental evidence of the clustering model and metastable vacancy defect state”,*IEEE International**Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*,S. Mei,

**N. Raghavan**, K. Shubhakar, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Multiphysics based 3D percolation framework model for multi-stage degradation and breakdown in high-κ – interfacial layer stacks”,*IEEE International**Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*,R. Thamankar,

**N. Raghavan**, J. Molina, F.M. Puglisi, S.J. O’Shea, K. Shubhakar, L. Larcher, P. Pavan, A. Padovani and K.L. Pey, “Single vacancy defect spectroscopy on HfO_{2}using random telegraph noise signals from scanning tunneling microscopy”,*Journal of Applied Physics*, Vol. 119, No. 8, 084304, (2016).S. Mei, M. Bosman,

**N. Raghavan**, X. Wu and K.L. Pey, “Compliance current dominates evolution of NiSi_{2}defect size in Ni/dielectric/Si RRAM devices”,*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 61, Issue 6, pp.71-77, (2016).**N. Raghavan**, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Probabilistic insight to possibility of new filament nucleation during repeated cycling of conducting bridge memory”,*26*^{th}**N. Raghavan**, D.D. Frey, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Statistics of retention failure in the low resistance state for hafnium oxide RRAM using a Kinetic Monte Carlo approach”,*26*^{th}K. Shubhakar, M. Bosman, O. A. Neucheva, Y. C. Loke,

**N. Raghavan**, R. Thamankar, A. Ranjan, S. J. O'Shea, and K. L. Pey, “An SEM/STM based nanoprobing and TEM study of breakdown locations in HfO_{2}/SiO_{x}dielectric stacks for failure analysis”,*26*^{th}R. Degraeve, A. Fantini,

**N. Raghavan**, L. Goux, S. Clima, B. Govoreanu, A. Belmonte, D. Linten and M. Jurczak, “Causes and consequences of the stochastic aspect of filamentary RRAM”,*Microelectronic Engineering*, Vol. 147, pp. 171-175, (2015).X. Wu, S. Mei, M. Bosman,

**N. Raghavan**, X.X. Zhang, D. Cha, K. Li and K.L. Pey, “Evolution of Filament Formation in Ni/HfO_{2}/SiO_{x}/Si‐Based RRAM Devices”,*Advanced Electronic Materials*, Issue 1, No. 11, (2015).**N. Raghavan**, W. H. Liu, R. Thamankar, M. Bosman and K. L. Pey, “Understanding defect kinetics in ultra-thin dielectric logic and memory devices using random telegraph noise analysis”,*22*^{nd}*International IEEE Symposium**Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA)*, pp. 149-153, (2015).A. Ranjan, K. Shubhakar,

**N. Raghavan**, R. Thamankar, M. Bosman, S. J. O'Shea, and K. L. Pey. "Localized Random Telegraphic Noise Study in HfO_{2}dielectric stacks using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy — Analysis of process and stress-induced traps”,*22*^{nd}*International IEEE Symposium**Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA)*, pp. 458-462, (2015).**N. Raghavan**, M. Bosman, and K. L. Pey, “Spectroscopy of SILC trap locations and spatial correlation study of percolation path in the high-κ and interfacial layer”,*IEEE International**Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*,**N. Raghavan**, D. D. Frey, M. Bosman, and K. L. Pey, “Monte Carlo model of reset stochastics and failure rate estimation of read disturb mechanism in HfO_{x}RRAM”,*IEEE International**Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*,**N. Raghavan**, M. Bosman, D.D. Frey and K.L. Pey, “Variability model for forming process in oxygen vacancy modulated high-κ based resistive switching memory devices”,*25*^{th}**N. Raghavan**, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Assessment of read disturb immunity in conducting bridge memory devices – A thermodynamic perspective”,*25*^{th}*European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF)*-*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 54, Issues 9-10, pp. 2295-2299, (2014).**N. Raghavan**, “Performance and reliability trade-offs for high-κ RRAM”,*25*^{th}*European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF)*, Invited Paper,*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 54, Issues 9-10, pp. 2253-2257, (2014).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, D.D. Frey and M. Bosman, “Impact of ionic drift and vacancy defect passivation on TDDB statistics and lifetime enhancement of metal gate high-κ stacks”,*52*^{nd}*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Waikoloa, Hawaii, 5B.4.1-5B.4.7, (2014).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, D.D. Frey and M. Bosman, “Stochastic failure model for endurance degradation in vacancy modulated HfO_{x}RRAM using the percolation cell framework”,*52*^{nd}*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Waikoloa, Hawaii, MY.9.1-MY.9.7, (2014).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey and K. Shubhakar, “High-κ dielectric breakdown in nanoscale logic devices – Scientific insight and technology impact”,*Microelectronics Reliability*, Introductory Invited Paper, Vol. 54, Issue 5, pp.847-860, (2014).L. Goux,

**N. Raghavan**, A. Fantini, R. Nigon, S. Strangio, R. Degraeve, G.S. Kar, Y.Y. Chen, F. De Stefano, V.V. Afanas’ev and M. Jurczak, “On the bipolar resistive switching characteristics of Al_{2}O_{3}and HfO_{2}based memory cells operated in the soft-breakdown regime”,*Journal of Applied Physics*, Vol. 116, 134502, (2014).K. Shubhakar, K.L. Pey,

**N. Raghavan**, M. Bosman, S.S. Kushvaha, Z.R. Wang and S.J. O’Shea, “Impact of local structural and electrical property of grain boundaries in polycrystalline HfO_{2}on reliability of SiO_{x}interfacial layer”,*25*^{th}*European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF)*-*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 54, Issues 9-10, pp. 1712-1717, (2014).K.L. Pey,

**N. Raghavan**, X. Wu and M. Bosman, “Filamentary switching with semiconducting bottom electrode – Physical insight and advantages”,*International Electron Devices and Materials Symposium (IEDMS)*, Hualien, Taiwan, Invited, pp.1-3, (2014).R. Degraeve, A. Fantini,

**N. Raghavan**, L. Goux, S. Clima, Y.Y. Chen, A. Belmonte, S. Cosemans, B. Govoreanu, D.J. Wouters, Ph. Roussel, G.S. Kar, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Hourglass concept for RRAM: a dynamic and statistical device model”,*21*^{st}*IEEE International Symposium on the Physics and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA)*, Singapore, Invited, pp. 1-4, (2014).W.H. Liu, A. Padovani, L. Larcher,

**N. Raghavan**and K.L. Pey, “Analysis of correlated gate and drain random telegraph noise in post soft-breakdown TiN/HfLaO/SiO_{x}nMOSFETs”,*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp.157-159, (2014).K. Shubhakar,

**N. Raghavan**and K.L. Pey, “Nanoscopic study of HfO_{2}based high-κ dielectric stacks and its failure analysis”,*International Journal of Materials Science and Engineering*, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp.81-86, (2014).**N. Raghavan**, R. Degraeve, A. Fantini, L. Goux, D.J. Wouters, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Stochastic variability of vacancy filament configuration in ultra-thin dielectric RRAM and its impact on OFF-state reliability”,*IEEE International Electron Device Symposium (IEDM)*, Washington, USA, pp. 21.1.1-21.1.4, (2013).**N. Raghavan**, A. Padovani, X. Li, X. Wu, V.L. Lo, M. Bosman, L. Larcher and K.L. Pey, “Resilience of ultra-thin oxynitride films to percolative wear-out and reliability implications for high-κ stacks at low voltage stress”,*Journal of Applied Physics*, Vol. 114, 094504, (2013).**N. Raghavan**, X. Wu, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Feasibility of SILC recovery in sub-10Ǻ EOT advanced metal gate – high-κ stacks”,*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 34, No. 8, pp.1053-1055, (2013).A. Padovani,

**N. Raghavan**, L. Larcher and K.L. Pey, “Identifying the first layer to fail in dual layer SiO_{x }/ HfSiON gate dielectric stacks”,*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 34, No. 10, pp.1289-1291, (2013).Y.Y. Chen, M. Komura, R. Degraeve, B. Govoreanu, L. Goux, A. Fantini,

**N. Raghavan**, S. Clima, L. Zhang, A. Belmonte, A. Redolfi, G.S. Kar, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Improvement of data retention in HfO_{2}/ Hf 1T-1R RRAM cell under low operating current”,*IEEE International Electron Device Symposium (IEDM)*, Washington, USA, pp.10.1.1-10.1.4, (2013).R. Degraeve, A. Fantini,

**N. Raghavan**, Y.Y. Chen, L. Goux, S. Clima, S. Cosemans, B. Govoreanu, D.J. Wouters, P.J. Roussel, G.S. Kar, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Modeling SET and RESET transients in Hf-based RRAM devices using the hourglass approach”,*44*^{th}*IEEE Semiconductor Interface Specialists Conference (SISC)*, Arlington, Virginia, USA, Invited, pp.1-2, (2013).K.L. Pey, K. Shubhakar,

**N. Raghavan**, X. Wu and M. Bosman, “Impact of local variations in high-κ dielectric on breakdown and recovery characteristics of advanced gate stacks”,*IEEE International Conference of**Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC),*Invited, pp.1-2, (2013).**N. Raghavan**, R. Degraeve, A. Fantini, L. Goux, D.J. Wouters, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Modeling the impact of reset depth on vacancy induced filament perturbations in HfO_{2}RRAM”,*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 34, No. 5, pp.614-616, (2013).**N. Raghavan**, R. Degraeve, L. Goux, A. Fantini, D.J. Wouters, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “RTN insight to filamentary instability and disturb immunity in ultra-low power switching HfO_{x}and AlO_{x}RRAM”,*IEEE VLSI Technology Symposium (VLSI)*, Kyoto, Japan, T163-T164, (2013).**N. Raghavan**, A. Padovani, X. Wu, K. Shubhakar, M. Bosman, L. Larcher and K.L. Pey, “The 'buffering' role of high-κ in post breakdown degradation immunity of advanced dual layer dielectric gate stacks”,*51*^{st}*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Monterey, California, pp.5A.3.1-5A.3.8, (2013).**N. Raghavan**, R. Degraeve, A. Fantini, L. Goux, S. Strangio, B. Govoreanu, D.J. Wouters, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Microscopic origin of random telegraph noise fluctuations in aggressively scaled RRAM and its impact on read disturb variability”,*51*^{st}*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Monterey, California, pp.5E.3.1-5E.3.7, (2013).**N. Raghavan**, A. Fantini, R. Degraeve, P.J. Roussel, L. Goux, B. Govoreanu, D.J. Wouters, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Statistical insight into controlled forming and forming-free stacks for HfO_{x}RRAM”,*18*^{th}*International Symposium on Insulating Films on Semiconductors (INFOS)*, Krakow, Poland,*Microelectronic Engineering*, Vol. 109, Issue 9, pp.177-181, (2013).R. Degraeve, A. Fantini,

**N. Raghavan**, Y.Y. Chen, L. Goux, S. Clima, S. Cosemans, B. Govoreanu, D.J. Wouters, P.J. Roussel, G.S. Kar, G. Groeseneken and M. Jurczak, “Modeling RRAM set/reset statistics resulting in guidelines for optimized operation”,*IEEE VLSI Technology Symposium (VLSI)*, Kyoto, Japan, T98-T99, (2013).L. Goux, A. Fantini, R. Degraeve,

**N. Raghavan**, R. Nigon, S. Strangio, G.S. Kar, D.J. Wouters, Y.Y. Chen, M. Komura, F. De Stefano, V.V. Afanas’ev and M. Jurczak, “Understanding of the intrinsic characteristics and memory trade-offs of sub-µA filamentary RRAM operation”,*IEEE VLSI Technology Symposium (VLSI)*, Kyoto, Japan, T162-T163, (2013).K.L. Pey,

**N. Raghavan**, W.H. Liu, X. Wu, K. Shubhakar and M. Bosman, “Real-time analysis of ultra-thin gate dielectric breakdown and recovery – A reality”,*IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA)*, Suzhou, China, Invited, pp.1-13, (2013).A. Fantini, L. Goux, R. Degraeve, D.J. Wouters,

**N. Raghavan**, G.S. Kar, A. Belmonte, Y.Y. Chen, B. Govoreanu and M. Jurczak, “Intrinsic variability in HfO_{2}RRAM”,*5*^{th}*IEEE International Memory Workshop (IMW)*, Monterey, California, pp.30-33, (2013).B. Govoreanu, A. Ajaykumar, H. Lipowicz, Y.Y. Chen, J.C. Liu, R. Degraeve, L. Zhang, S. Clima, L. Goux, I.P. Radu, A. Fantini,

**N. Raghavan**, G.S. Kar, W. Kim, A. Redolfi, D.J. Wouters, L. Altimime and M. Jurczak, “Performance and reliability of ultra-thin HfO_{2}-based RRAM (UTO-RRAM),*5*^{th}*IEEE International Memory Workshop (IMW)*, Monterey, California, pp.48-51, (2013).S. Clima, R. Degraeve, K. Sankaran, Y.Y. Chen, A. Fantini, A. Belmonte, L. Zhang,

**N. Raghavan**, L.Goux, B. Govoreanu, D.J. Wouters, M. Jurczak and G. Pourtois, “Switching aspects of RRAM – First principles and model simulations insight”,*American Vacuum Society 60*^{th}*International Symposium and Exhibition – Electronic Materials and Processing (AVS)*, Invited, Long Beach, California, USA, (2013).X. Wu, D. Cha, M. Bosman,

**N. Raghavan**, D.B. Migas, V.E. Borisenko, X.X. Zhang, K. Li and K.L. Pey, “Intrinsic nano-filamentation in resistance switching”,*Journal of Applied Physics*, Vol. 113, 114503, (2013).K. Shubhakar, K.L. Pey,

**N. Raghavan**, M. Bosman, S.S. Kushvaha, Z.R. Wang and S.J. O’Shea, “Study of preferential localized degradation and breakdown of HfO_{2}/SiO_{x}dielectric stacks at grain boundary sites of polycrystalline HfO_{2}dielectrics”,*18*^{th}*International Symposium on Insulating Films on Semiconductors (INFOS)*, Krakow, Poland,*Microelectronic Engineering*, Vol. 109, Issue 9, pp.364-369, (2013).A.L. Danilyuk, D.B. Migas, M.A. Danilyuk, V.E. Borisenko, X. Wu,

**N. Raghavan**and K.L. Pey, “Multiphonon ionization of traps formed in hafnium oxide by electrical stress”,*Physica Status Solidi A*, Vol. 210, Issue 2, pp.361-366, (2013).**N. Raghavan**, X. Wu, W.H. Liu, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Physical Analysis and Insight into Filamentary Switching in Nickel Electrode based RRAM”,*3*^{rd}*International Workshop on Simulation and Modeling of Memory Devices (IWSMM)*, Milan, Italy, (2012).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, X. Wu, W.H. Liu and M. Bosman, "Percolative model and thermodynamic analysis of oxygen ion mediated resistive switching",*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 33, No. 5, pp.712-714, (2012).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, K. Shubhakar, X. Wu, W.H. Liu and M. Bosman, "Role of grain boundary percolative defects and localized trap generation on the reliability statistics of high-κ gate dielectric stacks",*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Anaheim, Orange County, California, 6A.1.1 – 6A.1.11, (2012).M.A. Danilyuk, D.B. Migas, A.L. Danilyuk, V.E. Borisenko, X. Wu,

**N. Raghavan**and K.L. Pey, “Thermal reversible breakdown and resistivity switching in hafnium dioxide”,*Journal of Nano- and Electronic Physics*, Vol. 4, No. 1,01014, (2012).K.L. Pey,

**N. Raghavan**, X. Wu, W.H. Liu and M. Bosman, “Dielectric breakdown – recovery in logic and resistive switching in memory – Bridging the gap between the two phenomena”,*11*^{th}*International Conference on Solid State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)*, Xian, China, Invited, pp.1-6, (2012).K. Shubhakar, K.L. Pey, M. Bosman, R. Thamankar, Z.R. Wang,

**N. Raghavan**, S.S. Kushvaha and S.J. O'Shea, "Nanoscale physical analysis of localized breakdown events in HfO_{2}based dielectric stacks : A correlation study of STM-induced breakdown with C-AFM and TEM",*IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA)*, Singapore, pp.1-7, (2012).W.H. Liu, K.L. Pey,

**N. Raghavan**, X. Wu and M. Bosman, "Triggering voltage for post-breakdown random telegraph noise in HfLaO dielectric metal gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors and its reliability implications",*Journal of Applied Physics*, Vol. 111, Issue 2, 024101, (2012).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, X. Li, W.H. Liu, X. Wu, M. Bosman and T. Kauerauf, “Very low reset current in RRAM achieved in the oxygen vacancy controlled regime”,*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp.716-718, (2011).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, W.H. Liu, X. Wu, X. Li and M. Bosman, “Evidence for compliance controlled oxygen vacancy and metal filament based resistive switching mechanisms in RRAM”,*17*^{th}*International Symposium on Insulating Films on Semiconductors (INFOS)*, Grenoble, France. Published in*Microelectronic Engineering*, Vol. 88, Issue 7, pp.1124-1128, (2011).K.L. Pey,

**N. Raghavan**, X. Wu, W.H. Liu, X. Li, M. Bosman, K. Shubhakar, Z.Z. Lwin, Y.N. Chen, H. Qin and T. Kauerauf, "Physical analysis of breakdown in high-κ / metal gate stacks using TEM/EELS and STM for reliability enhancement",*17*^{th}*International Symposium on Insulating Films on Semiconductors (INFOS)*,*Invited Paper*, Grenoble, France. Published in*Microelectronic Engineering*, Vol. 88, Issue 7, pp.1365-1372, (2011).W.H. Liu, K.L. Pey, X. Wu,

**N. Raghavan**, A. Padovani, L. Larcher, L. Vandelli, M. Bosman and T. Kauerauf, "Threshold shift observed in resistive switching in metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors and the effect of forming gas anneal",*Applied Physics Letters*, Vol. 99, Issue 23, 232909, (2011).X. Wu, K.L. Pey,

**N. Raghavan**, W.H. Liu, X. Li, P. Bai, G. Zhang and M. Bosman, "Using post-breakdown conduction study in MIS structure to better understand resistive switching mechanism in MIM stack",*Nanotechnology*, Vol. 22, No. 45, 455702, (2011).X. Wu, Z. Fang, K. Li, M. Bosman,

**N. Raghavan**, X. Li, H.Y. Yu, N. Singh, G.Q. Lo, X.X. Zhang and K.L. Pey, "Chemical insight into origin of forming-free RRAM devices",*Applied Physics Letters*, Vol. 19, Issue 13, 133504, (2011).X. Wu, K. Li,

**N. Raghavan**, M. Bosman, Q.X. Wang, D. Cha, X.X. Zhang and K.L. Pey, "Uncorrelated multiple conductive filament nucleation and rupture in ultra-thin high-κ dielectric based RRAM",*Applied Physics Letters*, Vol. 99, 093502, (2011). (Also selected to be published in the*Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology,*Sept'11 Issue).**N. Raghavan**, W.H. Liu, X. Li, X. Wu, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, "Filamentation mechanism of resistive switching in fully-silicided high-κ gate stacks",*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp.455-457, (2011).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, X. Wu, W.H. Liu, X. Li, M. Bosman and T. Kauerauf, "Oxygen soluble gate electrodes for prolonged high-κ gate stack reliability",*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp.252-254, (2011).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, K. Shubhakar and M. Bosman, "Modified percolation model for polycrystalline high-κ gate dielectric stack with grain boundary defects",*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp.78-80, (2011).Z.Z. Lwin, K.L. Pey,

**N. Raghavan**, Y.N. Chen and S. Mahapatra, "New leakage mechanism and dielectric breakdown layer detection in metal nanocrystals embedded dual layer memory gate stack",*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp.800-802, (2011).K. Shubhakar, K.L. Pey, S.S. Kushvaha, S.J. O'Shea,

**N. Raghavan**, M. Bosman, M. Kouda, K. Kakushima and H. Iwai, "Grain boundary assisted degradation and breakdown study in cerium oxide gate dielectric using scanning tunneling microscopy",*Applied Physics Letters*, Vol. 98, 072902, (2011).W.H. Liu, K.L. Pey,

**N. Raghavan**, X. Wu and M. Bosman, "Random telegraph noise reduction in metal gate high-κ stacks by bipolar switching and the performance boosting technique",*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium*(*IRPS*), Monterey, California, pp.182-189, (2011).K. Shubhakar, K.L. Pey, S.S. Kushvaha, S.J. O'Shea, M. Bosman,

**N. Raghavan**, M. Kouda, K. Kakushima, Z.R. Wang, H.Y. Yu and H. Iwai, "Nanoscale physical study of polycrystalline high-κ gate dielectric stacks and proposed reliability enhancement techniques",*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium*(*IRPS*), Monterey, California, pp.786-791, (2011).A.L. Danilyuk, D.B. Migas, M.A. Danilyuk, V.E. Borisenko, X. Wu,

**N. Raghavan**and K.L. Pey, "Thermal formation of switching resistivity nanowires in hafnium dioxide",*Proceedings of the International Conference on Nanomeeting*, Minsk, Belarus, pp.39-42, (2011).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, W.H. Liu and M. Bosman, "Post breakdown gate current low frequency noise spectrum as a detection tool for high-κ and interfacial layer breakdown",*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 31, No. 9, pp.1035-1037, (2010).X. Li, W.H. Liu,

**N. Raghavan**, M. Bosman and K.L. Pey, “Resistive switching in NiSi gate metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors”,*Applied Physics Letters*, 97, 202904, (2010).A. Padovani, L. Morassi,

**N. Raghavan**, L. Larcher, W.H. Liu, K.L. Pey and G. Bersuker, "A physical model for post-breakdown digital gate current noise",*IEEE Electron Device Letters*, Vol. 31, No. 9, pp.1032-1034, (2010).K.L. Pey, X. Wu, W.H. Liu, X. Li,

**N. Raghavan**, K. Shubhakar and M. Bosman, "An overview of physical analysis of nanosize conductive path in ultra-thin SiON and high-κ gate dielectrics in nanoelectronic devices",*IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA)*,*Invited Paper*, pp.253-264, (2010).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, W.H. Liu, X. Wu and X. Li, “Unipolar Recovery of Dielectric Breakdown in Fully Silicided high-κ gate stacks and its reliability implications”,*Applied Physics Letters*, 96, 142901, (2010).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey, W.H. Liu and X. Li, “New statistical model to decode the reliability and Weibull Slope of High-κ and Interfacial Layer in a Dual Layer Dielectric Stack”,*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Anaheim, California, pp.778-786, (2010).K.L. Pey,

**N. Raghavan**, X. Li, W.H. Liu, K. Shubhakar, X. Wu and M. Bosman, “New insight into TDDB and Post Breakdown Reliability of Novel High-κ Gate Dielectric Stacks”,*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*,*Invited Paper*, Anaheim, California, pp.354-363, (2010).X. Wu, D.B. Migas, X. Li, M. Bosman,

**N. Raghavan**, V.E. Borisenko and K.L. Pey, "Role of oxygen vacancies in HfO2 based gate stack breakdown"*Applied Physics Letters*, Vol. 96, 172901, (2010).X. Wu, K.L. Pey, G. Zhang, P. Bai, X. Li, W.H. Liu and

**N. Raghavan**, "Electrode material dependent breakdown and recovery in advanced high-κ gate stacks",*Applied Physics Letters*, Vol. 96, 202903, (2010).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey and X. Li, “Detection of high-κ and interfacial layer breakdown using the tunneling mechanism in a dual layer dielectric stack”,*Applied Physics Letters*, Vol. 95, 222903, (2009).**N. Raghavan**, X. Wu, X. Li, W.H. Liu, V.L. Lo and K.L. Pey, “Post breakdown reliability enhancement of ULSI circuits with novel gate dielectric stacks”,*IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Circuits (ISIC)*, Singapore, pp.505-513, (2009).

## PROGNOSTICS AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT (PHM)

## (2014 - 2022)

K. Pugalenthi, S.L.H. Lim, H. Park, S. Hussain and

**N. Raghavan**, “Prognosis of LED Lumen Degradation using Bayesian Optimized Neural Network Approach”,*Microelectronics Reliability*, Accepted, In Press, (2022).S.L.H. Lim, P.L.T, Duong, H. Park and

**N. Raghavan**, “Expedient Validation of LED Reliability with Anomaly Detection through Multi-Output Gaussian Process Regression”,*Microelectronics Reliability*, Accepted, In Press, (2022).K. Pugalenthi, H. Park, S. Hussain and

**N. Raghavan**, “Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Neural Networks with Adaptive Bayesian Learning”,*Sensors*, 22(10), p.3803, (2022).K. Pugalenthi, H. Park, S. Hussain and

**N. Raghavan**, “Predicting Lumen Degradation of Light Emitting Diodes Using Hybrid Particle Filter Trained Neural Networks”,*IEEE Access*, Vol. 9, pp.167292-167304, (2021).L.S.L. Harry, P.L.T. Duong, H. Park and

**N. Raghavan**, “Bias Suppression Framework for Detrending Mean of Multi-Output Gaussian Process Regression in LED Remaining Storage Life Prognosis”,*IEEE Access*, Vol. 9, pp.166639-166657, (2021).K. Pugalenthi, H. Park, S. Hussain and

**N. Raghavan**, “Hybrid Particle Filter Trained Neural Network for Prognosis of Lithium-Ion Batteries”,*IEEE Access*, Vol.*9*, pp.135132-135143, (2021).K. Pugalenthi, P.L.T. Duong, J. Doh, S. Hussain, M.H. Jhon and

**N. Raghavan**, “Online Prognosis of Bimodal Crack Evolution for Fatigue Life Prediction of Composite Laminates Using Particle Filters”,*Applied Sciences*,*11*(13), p.6046, (2021).M. Tanwar, H. Park and

**N. Raghavan**, “Multistate Diagnosis and Prognosis of Lubricating Oil Degradation Using Sticky Hierarchical Dirichlet Process–Hidden Markov Model Framework”,*Applied Sciences*, Vol. 11(14), p.6603, (2021).M. Tanwar,

**N. Raghavan**and S. Khanam, “Condition Based Maintenance Policy for Crankcase Lubricating Oil in Diesel Locomotives”,*IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM)*(pp. 1593-1598), (2021).P.L.T. Duong, S. Hussain, M.H. Jhon and

**N. Raghavan**, “Data Driven Prognosis of Fracture Dynamics Using Tensor Train and Gaussian Process Regression”,*IEEE Access*, Vol. 8 (2020): 222256-222266.S.L.H. Lim, P.L.T. Duong, H. Park, P. Singh, C.M. Tan, and

**N. Raghavan**, “Assessing multi-output Gaussian process regression for modeling of non-monotonic degradation trends of light emitting diodes in storage”,*Microelectronics Reliability*114 (2020): 113794.K. Pugalenthi, H. Park and

**N. Raghavan**, “Piecewise Model-Based Online Prognosis of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Particle Filters”,*IEEE Access*,*8*, pp.153508-153516, (2020).M. Tanwar and

**N. Raghavan**, “Lubricating Oil Remaining Useful Life Prediction Using Multi-Output Gaussian Process Regression”,*IEEE Access*,*8*, pp.128897-128907, (2020).S. Hussain, P.L.T. Duong,

**N. Raghavan**and M.H. Jhon, “Temporal Convolutional Network Based Transfer Learning for Structural Health Monitoring of Composites”,*Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining*(pp. 141-152). Springer, Cham, (2020).S.L.H. Lim, P.L.T. Duong and

**N. Raghavan**, “Exploration of Multi-Output Gaussian Process Regression for Residual Storage Life Prediction in Lithium Ion Battery”,*IEEE Prognostics and Health Management Conference*, pp. 263-269, Besancon, France, (2020).P.L.T. Duong,

**N. Raghavan**, S. Hussain and M.H. Jhon, “Tensor Train Decomposition for Data-Driven Prognosis of Fracture Dynamics in Composite Materials”,*IEEE Aerospace Conference*, pp. 1-7, Montana, USA, (2020).K. Pugalenthi, H. Park and

**N. Raghavan**, “Prognosis of power MOSFET resistance degradation trend using artificial neural network approach”,*Microelectronics Reliability*,*100*, 113467, (2019).M. Tanwar and

**N. Raghavan**, "Lubrication oil degradation trajectories: Prognosis with ARIMA and Bayesian Models",*IEEE International Conference on Sensing, Diagnostics, Prognostics and Control (SDPC)*, pp. 1-6, (2019).M. Tanwar and

**N. Raghavan**, "Lubrication oil degradation monitoring and prognostics using Wiener Process",*IEEE International Conference on Sensing, Diagnostics, Prognostics and Control (SDPC)*, pp. 1-5, (2019).K. Pugalenthi and

**N. Raghavan**, "Study on Partial Stratified Resampling for Particle Filter Based Prognosis on Li-Ion Batteries",*IEEE Prognostics and System Health Management Conference (PHM-Chongqing)*, pp.1176-1181, (2018).K. Pugalenthi and

**N. Raghavan**, "Roughening Particle Filter Based Prognosis on Power MOSFETs Using ON-Resistance Variation",*IEEE Prognostics and System Health Management Conference (PHM-Chongqing)*, pp.1170-1175, (2018).P.L.T. Duong and

**N. Raghavan**, "Prognostic Health Management for LED with Missing Data: Multi-task Gaussian Process Regression Approach",*IEEE Prognostics and System Health Management Conference (PHM-Chongqing)*, pp.1182-1187, (2018).K. Pugalenthi and

**N. Raghavan**, “A holistic comparison of the different resampling algorithms for particle filter based prognosis using lithium ion batteries as a case study”,*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 91, pp.160-169, (2018).P.L.T. Duong, H. Park and

**N. Raghavan**, “Application of multi-output Gaussian process regression for remaining useful life prediction of light emitting diodes”,*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 88, pp.80-84, (2018).P.L.T. Duong, H. Park and

**N. Raghavan**, “Application of expectation maximization and Kalman smoothing for prognosis of lumen maintenance life for light emitting diodes”,*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 87, pp.206-212, (2018).P.L.T. Duong and

**N. Raghavan**, “Heuristic Kalman optimized particle filter for remaining useful life prediction of lithium-ion battery”,*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 81, pp. 232-243, (2018).C.I. Ossai and

**N. Raghavan**, “Stochastic model for Lithium-ion batteries lifecycle prediction and parametric uncertainties”,*64*^{th}*IEEE Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS)*, pp. 1-6, (2018).C.I. Ossai and

**N. Raghavan**, “Non-linear mixed effects model-based prognostics for lithium ion battery charge decay”,*64*^{th}*IEEE Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS)*, pp. 1-6, (2018).X. Yi, P.L.T. Duong,

**N. Raghavan**and D.W. Rosen, "A rapid design exploration framework under additive manufacturing process uncertainty",*Pro-AM Symposium*, Singapore, pp.1-4, (2018).P.L.T. Duong and

**N. Raghavan**, “Uncertainty quantification in prognostics: A data-driven polynomial chaos approach”,*IEEE Conference on Prognostics and Health Management (PHM)*, pp. 135-142, (2017).P.L.T. Duong and

**N. Raghavan**, “A meta-heuristic approach to remaining useful life estimation of systems subject to multiple degradation mechanisms”,*IEEE Conference on Prognostics and Health Management (PHM)*, pp. 227-233, (2017).P.L.T. Duong, T.T. Tran and

**N. Raghavan**, “Application of multiplicative dimensional reduction method for uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis of MEMS electrostatic actuators”,*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 76, pp. 619-625, (2017).C.I. Ossai and

**N. Raghavan**, “Statistical characterization of the state-of-health of lithium-ion batteries with Weibull distribution function – A consideration of random effect model in charge capacity decay estimation”,*Batteries*, 3(4), 32, (2017).**N. Raghavan**and K.L. Pey, “Percolation framework and Monte Carlo techniques for improved probabilistic design of variability in products and systems”,*6*^{th}*International Conference on Research into Design (ICoRD)*, pp. 1-13, (2017).**N. Raghavan**and D.D. Frey, “Real-time update of multi-state system reliability using prognostics data-driven techniques”,*62*^{nd }*IEEE Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS)*, pp.1-5, (2016).**N. Raghavan**and D.D. Frey, “Particle filter approach to lifetime prediction for microelectronic devices and systems with multiple failure mechanisms”,*26*^{th}*European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF)*,*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 55, No. 9, pp. 1297-1301, (2015).**N. Raghavan**and D.D. Frey, “Remaining useful life estimation for systems subject to multiple degradation mechanisms”,*IEEE Conference on Prognostics and Health Management (PHM)*, pp. 1-8, (2015).**N. Raghavan**, D.D. Frey and K.L. Pey, “Prognostic methodology for remaining useful life estimation of retention loss in nanoscale resistive switching memory”,*25*^{th}*European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (ESREF)*,*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 54, Issue 9, pp.1729-1734, (2014).**N. Raghavan**, K.L. Pey and D.D. Frey, "Noise based prognostic design for real-time degradation analysis of dielectric breakdown",*60th IEEE Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS)*, pp.370-376, Orlando, Florida, (2013).**N. Raghavan**, K. Shubhakar and K.L. Pey, "Monte Carlo evidence for need of improved percolation model for non-Weibullian degradation in high-κ dielectrics",*60th IEEE Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS)*, pp.839-845, Orlando, Florida, (2013).

## DESIGN FOR ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING + METAL NANOLAMINATES +

## POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES (2017 - 2022)

R. Sahay, Y.C. Tu, I. Aziz, A.S. Budiman, C.M. Tan, P.S. Lee, O. Thomas and

**N. Raghavan**, “Investigation of the reliability of nano- crystalline-amorphous layers deposited on polymer substrates for flexible electronic applications”,*Scientific Reports*, To Be Submitted, (2022).U. Kizhakkinan, S. Seetharaman,

**N. Raghavan**and D.W. Rosen, “Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of maraging steel: A review”,*Acta Materialia*, To Be Submitted, (2022).U. Kizhakkinan, P.L.T. Duong, R. Laskowski, G. Vastola, D.W. Rosen and

**N. Raghavan**, “Development of a Surrogate Model for High-Fidelity Laser Powder-Bed Fusion using Tensor Train and Gaussian Process Regression”,*Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing*, Revision Under Review, (2022).U. Kizhakkinan, D.W. Rosen and

**N. Raghavan**, “Experimental Investigation of Fracture Toughness of Fused Deposition Model Printed PLA Parts”,*Materials Today Proceedings*, Under Review, (2022).R.K. Balaraman, S. Hussain, C. Ford, J.K. Ong, Q.Y. Tan, U.X. Tan and

**N. Raghavan**, “Prediction of Part Density in Additively Manufactured Maraging Steel with Supervised Machine Learning using Pyrometer Data”,*Materials Today Proceedings*, Under Review, (2022).J. Doh, N. Raju,

**N. Raghavan**, D.W. Rosen and S. Kim, “Bayesian inference-based decision of fatigue life model for metal additive manufacturing considering effects of build orientation and post-processing”,*International Journal of Fatigue*, Vol. 155, p.106535, (2022).R. Sahay, A.S. Budiman, I. Aziz, E. Navarro, S. Escoubas, T.W. Cornelius, F.E. Gunawan, C. Harito, P.S. Lee, O. Thomas and

**N. Raghavan**, “Crystallographic Anisotropy Dependence of Interfacial Sliding Phenomenon in a Cu (16)/Nb (16) ARB (Accumulated Rolling Bonding) Nanolaminate”,*Nanomaterials*, Vol.*12*(3), p.308, (2022).A.S. Budiman, R. Sahay, K. Agarwal, R. Fajarna, F.E. Gunawan, A. Baji and

**N. Raghavan**, "Modeling Impact Mechanics of 3D Helicoidally Architected Polymer Composites Enabled by Additive Manufacturing for Lightweight Silicon Photovoltaics Technology",*Polymers*, Vol. 14, No. 6 (2022): 1228.J. Doh, S.I. Park, Q. Yang and

**N. Raghavan**, “Uncertainty Quantification of Percolating Electrical Conductance for Wavy Carbon Nanotube-Filled Polymer Nanocomposites Using Bayesian Inference”,*Carbon*, Vol. 172, pp. 308-323, (2021).A.S. Budiman, R. Sahay, H. Parveen, S.K. Tippabhotla, I. Radchenko and

**N. Raghavan**, “Interface-mediated plasticity and fracture in nanoscale Cu/Nb multilayers as revealed by in situ clamped microbeam bending”,*Materials Science and Engineering: A*803 (2021): 140705.R. Sahay, K. Agarwal, A. Subramani,

**N. Raghavan**, A.S. Budiman and A. Baji, “Helicoidally Arranged Polyacrylonitrile Fiber-Reinforced Strong and Impact-Resistant Thin Polyvinyl Alcohol Film Enabled by Electrospinning-Based Additive Manufacturing”,*Polymers*, 12(10), p.2376, (2020).J. Doh, Q. Yang and

**N. Raghavan**, “Reliability-based robust design optimization of polymer nanocomposites to enhance percolated electrical conductivity considering correlated input variables using multivariate distributions”,*Polymer*,*186*, 122060, (2020).Y. Xiong, P.L.T. Duong, D. Wang, S.I, Park, Q. Ge,

**N. Raghavan**and D.W. Rosen, “Data-driven design space exploration and exploitation for design for additive manufacturing”,*Journal of Mechanical Design*, Vol. 141(10), (2019).J. Doh, S.I. Park, Q. Yang and

**N. Raghavan**, “The effect of carbon nanotube chirality on the electrical conductivity of polymer nanocomposites considering tunneling resistance”,*Nanotechnology*,*30*(46), 465701, (2019).J. Doh,

**N. Raghavan**and J. Lee, “Prediction of percolation threshold and electrical conductivity characteristics for polymer nanocomposites according to geometric parameters of CNTs”,*Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, A*,*43*(4), 297-306, (2019).R.K. Adhitan and

**N. Raghavan**, “Transient thermomechanical modeling of stress evolution and re-melt volume fraction in electron beam additive manufacturing process”,*Procedia Manufacturing*, Vol. 11, pp.571-583, (2017).

## BACK-END-OF-LINE (BEOL) RELIABILITY

## 2005-2009

A. Heryanto, K.L. Pey, Y.K. Lim,

**N. Raghavan**, W. Liu, J. Wei, C.L. Gan and J.B. Tan, "Stress migration risk on electromigration reliability in advanced narrow line copper interconnects",*Journal of Applied Physics*, Vol. 110, Issue 8, 083702, (2011).A. Heryanto, K.L. Pey, Y.K. Lim, W. Liu,

**N. Raghavan**, J. Wei, C.L. Gan, M.K. Lim and J.B. Tan, "The effect of stress migration on electromigration in dual damascene copper interconnects",*Journal of Applied Physics*, Vol. 109, Issue 1, 013716, (2011).A. Heryanto, K.L. Pey, Y.K. Lim, W. Liu, J. Wei,

**N. Raghavan**, J.B. Tan and D.K. Sohn, “Study of stress migration and electromigration interaction in copper / low-κ interconnects”,*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Anaheim, California, pp.586-590, (2010).W. Li, C.M. Tan and

**N. Raghavan**– “Predictive dynamic simulation for void nucleation during electromigration in ULSI interconnects”,*Journal of Applied Physics*, Vol. 105, 014305, (2009).**N. Raghavan**and K. Prasad, "Statistical outlook into the physics of failure for copper low-K intra-metal dielectric breakdown",*IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)*, Quebec, Canada, pp.819-824, (2009).C.M. Tan and

**N. Raghavan**– “A bimodal 3-parameter Lognormal Mixture Distribution for Electromigration Failures”,*Thin Solid Films*, Vol. 516, pp.8804-8809, (2008).**N. Raghavan**and C.M. Tan, “Statistical Modeling of Via Redundancy Effects on Interconnect Reliability”,*15th IEEE International Symposium on the Physics and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA)*, Singapore, pp.67-71, (2008).C.M. Tan,

**N. Raghavan**and A. Roy – “Application of Gamma Distribution in Electromigration for Submicron Interconnects”,*Journal of Applied Physics*, Vol. 102, No. 10, 103703, (2007).C.M. Tan and

**N. Raghavan**– “Unveiling the Electromigration Physics of ULSI Interconnects through Statistics”,*Semiconductor Science and Technology*, Vol. 22, pp.941-946, (2007).C.M. Tan and

**N. Raghavan**– “An approach to Statistical Analysis of Gate Oxide Breakdown Mechanisms”,*18*^{th}*European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics & Analysis (ESREF)*,*Microelectronics Reliability*, Vol. 47, Issues 9 – 11, pp.1336-1342, (2007).**N. Raghavan**and C.M. Tan, “Statistical Analysis of Multi-Censored Electromigration Data using the EM Algorithm”,*14*^{th}*IEEE International Symposium on the Physics and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA)*, Bangalore, India, pp.257-262, (2007).

## RELIABILITY AND MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING

## (2004 - 2010)

C.M. Tan and

**N. Raghavan**, "Imperfect predictive maintenance model for multi-state systems with multiple failure modes and element failure dependency",*IEEE Prognostics and Health Management Conference (PHM)*, pp.1-12, Macau, China, (2010).C.M. Tan and

**N. Raghavan**– “Reply to Comments on ‘A framework to practical predictive maintenance modeling for multi-state systems’”,*Reliability Engineering & System Safety*, Vol. 94, Issue 3, pp.781-782, (2009).C.M. Tan and

**N. Raghavan**– “A Framework to Practical Predictive Maintenance Modeling for Multi-State Systems”,*Reliability Engineering and System Safety*, Vol. 93, Issue 8, pp.1138-1150, (2008).C.M. Tan and

**N. Raghavan**– “Root Cause Analysis based maintenance policy”,*International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management (IJQRM)*, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp.203 – 228. (2007).C.M. Tan and

**N. Raghavan**– “A comprehensive predictive maintenance model for equipment maintenance in the semiconductor industry”,*IFAC Workshop on Advanced Process Control for Semiconductor Manufacturing*, Singapore, (2006).C.M. Tan and

**N. Raghavan**– “A cost model for the predictive maintenance of a multi-state system”,*10*^{th}*Maintenance and Reliability Conference (MARCON)*, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA, (2006).**N. Raghavan**and C.M. Tan – “Examine the impact of maintenance policy for predictive maintenance”,*4*^{th}*International Conference on Quality and Reliability (ICQR)*, Beijing, China, (2005).

## INVITED BOOK CHAPTERS

A. Ranjan,

**N. Raghavan**, K. Shubhakar, S.J. O’Shea and K.L. Pey, 2020. Random Telegraph Noise Nano-spectroscopy in High-κ Dielectrics Using Scanning Probe Microscopy Techniques. In*Noise in Nanoscale Semiconductor Devices*(pp. 417-440). Springer, Cham.S. Cheng,

**N. Raghavan**, J. Gu, S. Mathew and M. Pecht – CHAPTER 3 – “Physics-of-Failure Approach to PHM” - BOOK TITLE – “Prognostics and health management of electronics: Fundamentals, Machine Learning, and the Internet of Things”,*Wiley Publications*, pp.61-84, (2019).J. Suňé,

**N. Raghavan**& K.L. Pey – CHAPTER 8 – “Dielectric Breakdown Processes”, BOOK TITLE – “Resistive switching – from fundamentals of nanoionic redox processes to memristive device applications”, pp.225-252,*Wiley Publications*, (2016).D.J. Wouters, Y.Y. Chen, A. Fantini &

**N. Raghavan**– CHAPTER 21 – “Reliability Aspects”, BOOK TITLE – “Resistive switching – from fundamentals of nanoionic redox processes to memristive device applications”, pp.597-622,*Wiley Publications*, (2016).**N. Raghavan**& K.L. Pey – CHAPTER – “Reliability of Emerging Nanodevices”, BOOK TITLE – “Reliability Characterization of Electrical and Electronic Systems”,*Woodhead Publishers UK*, (2015).C.M. Tan &

**N. Raghavan**– CHAPTER - “Simulated Annealing for Mixture Distribution Analysis and its Applications to Reliability Testing”, BOOK TITLE – “Global Optimization – Focus on Simulated Annealing”,*I-Tech Education & Publishing*, ISBN: 978-953-7619-07-7, (2008).

WEB-LINK - http://www.intechopen.com/books/show/title/simulated_annealing * *